What was Mary Ainsworth Strange Situation?
The Strange situation is a standardized procedure devised by Mary Ainsworth in the 1970s to observe attachment security in children within the context of caregiver relationships. It applies to infants between the age of nine and 18 months.
What are Ainsworth 4 attachment styles?
After the study, Ainsworth scored each of the responses and grouped them into four interaction behaviours: closeness and contact seeking, maintaining contact, avoidance of closeness and contact, resistance to contact and proximity. These interactions were based on two reunion episodes during the observation.
What are the 4 types of attachment?
Attachment theory has established four types of attachment: secure, avoidant, ambivalent, and disorganized. Studies have shown that how a child first attaches to her caregivers has a lasting impact on how she relates to other people as she gets older.
Why is the Strange Situation culturally biased?
The Strange Situation was created and tested in the USA, which means that it may be culturally biased (ethnocentric), as it will reflect the norms and values of American culture. For example, the belief that attachment is related to anxiety on separation. This may not be the case in other cultures, e.g. Japan.
What is the difference between Bowlby and Ainsworth?
John Bowlby is considered the father of attachment theory. His research into the relationship developed between a caregiver and an infant as an evolutionary homeostatic function produced four characteristics of attachment. Ainsworth built upon the foundation of attachment theory built by Bowlby.
In which pattern of attachment reported by Ainsworth in the Strange Situation did the child show no distress when the mother left the room?
The avoidant-insecure child doesn’t explore much, and she doesn’t show much emotion when her mother leaves. She shows no preference for her mother over a complete stranger. When her mother returns, she tends to avoid or ignore her (Ainsworth et al 1978).
Are there 3 or 4 attachment styles?
There are three distinct types of attachment style: secure, anxious, and avoidant.
What is anxious preoccupied?
Anxious preoccupied attachment is an attachment style in which a person experiences anxiety in their relationships with significant others in their lives. It stems from attachment theory which argues that childhood experiences can affect our relationships later in life.
What is ethnocentrism in social psychology?
Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of one’s own culture. Part of ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s own race, ethnic or cultural group is the most important or that some or all aspects of its culture are superior to those of other groups.
What is alpha and beta bias?
The tendency to exaggerate differences is called “alpha bias,” and the tendency to minimize differences is called “beta bias.” Alpha bias can be seen in psychodynamic theories, Parson’s sex role theory, and in feminist psychodynamic theories.
Did John Bowlby work with Mary Ainsworth?
Although Bowlby and Ainsworth worked independently of each other during their early careers, both were influenced by Freud and other psychoanalytic thinkers-directly in Bowlby’s case, indirectly in Ainsworth’s.