What is Kernohan phenomenon?
Kernohan’s notch phenomenon is the ipsilateral hemiplegia caused by compression of the contralateral cerebral peduncle against the tentorial edge by a supratentorial mass. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) could be useful for exploring the state of the corticospinal tract (CST).
What is Transtentorial herniation?
A transtentorial herniation is the movement of brain tissue from one intracranial compartment to another. This includes uncal, central, and upward herniation. These are life-threatening and time-critical pathologies that may be reversible with emergent surgical intervention and medical management.
What is a herniated brain?
Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most often the result of brain swelling or bleeding from a head injury, stroke, or brain tumor. Brain herniation can be a side effect of tumors in the brain, including: Metastatic brain tumor.
What is uncal?
Uncal (Transtentorial) Herniation. The uncus is the most medial part of the temporal lobe. When it is squeezed against the tentorium, it exerts pressure on the third cranial (oculomotor) nerve as it leaves the midbrain and travels along the free edge of the tentorium.
What is the supratentorial?
The supratentorial area (the upper part of the brain) contains the cerebrum, lateral ventricle and third ventricle (with cerebrospinal fluid shown in blue), choroid plexus, pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and optic nerve.
How do you fix a brain herniation?
Treating brain herniation
- surgery to remove a tumor, blood clot, or abscess.
- ventriculostomy, a surgery that places a drain through a hole in the skull to get rid of fluids.
- osmotic therapy or diuretics, such as mannitol or hypertonic saline, to pull fluid out of the brain tissue.
- corticosteroids to reduce inflammation.
Can a person survive brain herniation?
The outlook varies, depending on where in the brain the herniation occurs. Without treatment, death is likely. There can be damage to parts of the brain that control breathing and blood flow. This can rapidly lead to death or brain death.
Is uncal herniation fatal?
Uncal herniation is a life-threatening emergency that may have fatal consequences. Immediate medical attention is required.
Is uncal herniation reversible?
Uncal herniation can is reversible if recognized early and treated aggressively.
What is the function of crus cerebri?
These massive crossed fibres, called crus cerebri, form the middle cerebellar peduncle and serve as the bridge that connects each cerebral hemisphere with the opposite half of the cerebellum. The fibres originating from the cerebral cortex constitute the corticopontine tract.