What does cytidine deaminase do?

What does cytidine deaminase do?

Cytidine deaminase is a key enzyme involved in the pyrimidine salvage pathway and maintains the cellular pyrimidine supply. It is encoded by the human CDA gene. In the 1960s, cytosine nucleoside analogs, such as cytarabine, were reported to contain antitumor effects.

What is the substrate for cytidine deaminase?

Cytidine Deaminase Substrates

Drug Target Type
Azacitidine Cytidine deaminase enzyme
Azacitidine DNA target
Azacitidine RNA target
Capecitabine Thymidylate synthase target

What is the function of APOBEC3G?

APOBEC3G exerts innate antiretroviral immune activity against retroviruses, most notably HIV, by interfering with proper replication. However, lentiviruses such as HIV have evolved the Viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein in order to counteract this effect.

What active site amino acid is found in all members of the family of cytidine deaminase enzymes?

The first member of this new family is APOBEC1, which deaminates apolipoprotein B messenger RNA to generate a premature stop codon. APOBEC1 has the conserved active site motif found in Escherichia coli cytidine deaminase.

What is activation induced cytidine deaminase?

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) deficiency causes the autosomal recessive form of the Hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2) Cell.

Where is uridine found?

It is non-essential and supplied from food or synthesized by the body from uracil. Uridine is primarily found in sugar beets, sugarcane, tomatoes, yeast (especially the types used to make beer), organ meats, and broccoli. Uridine is produced by the body when insufficient amounts are ingested.

Where is APOBEC found?

APOBEC (apolipoprotein BmRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide) proteins are a group of cytidine deaminases, which in humans include AID and APOBEC1 (located on chromosome 12); APOBEC2 (chromosome 6); and a series of seven APOBEC3 genes, which are tandemly arrayed on human chromosome 22 [12].

What reaction does the human APOBEC3G protein catalyze?

APOBEC3G (A3G) is a member of the cellular polynucleotide cytidine deaminases, which catalyze the deamination of cytosine (dC) to uracil (dU) in single-stranded DNA.

Is cytidine an amino acid?

Uridine is converted to the base uracil, and the ultimate catabolism of cytidine yields the amino acid β-alanine and malonyl-CoA which can enter into fatty acid biosynthesis. Alternatively, uridine can be metabolized to all of the pyrimidine triphosphate nucleic acid precursors.

What causes somatic hypermutation?

Somatic hypermutation involves a programmed process of mutation affecting the variable regions of immunoglobulin genes. Unlike germline mutation, SHM affects only an organism’s individual immune cells, and the mutations are not transmitted to the organism’s offspring.

What is the difference between cytidine and cytosine?

Cytidine (symbol C or Cyd) is a nucleoside molecule that is formed when cytosine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N1-glycosidic bond. Cytidine is a component of RNA. If cytosine is attached to a deoxyribose ring, it is known as a deoxycytidine.

Where is cytidine deaminase found in humans?

The gene encoding cytidine deaminase (CDA) is located in locus 1p36.2-1p35 [54, 55]. CDA catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of cytidine and deoxycytidine to uridine and deoxyuridine, respectively, that results in the loss of their cytotoxic activity.

Does cytidine deaminase status matter in the clinical outcome of azacytidine treatment?

miR-484-modulated cytidine deaminase has a dual impact in promoting chemoresistance and suppressing cell proliferation in breast cancer This case report calls for further prospective studies investigating the exact role that CDA status plays in the clinical outcome of patients treated with azacytidine.

What is the role of cytidine deaminases in the proteome?

Cytidine deaminases with the capacity to act on nucleic acids play a critical role in regulating the proteome through diversification of expressed sequence beyond that encoded in the genome. A family of these enzymes, known as the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, has been identified in mammalian cells.

Does cytidine deaminase contribute to cell resistance to nucleoside analogs?

However, an elevated level of cytidine deaminase has been identified as one of the contributing factors in cellular resistance to nucleoside analogs [79–81]; thus, CDA was selected as a candidate for drug-resistance gene therapy.

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