What was the Kulturkampf in Germany?
See Article History. Kulturkampf, (German: “culture struggle”), the bitter struggle (c. 1871–87) on the part of the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck to subject the Roman Catholic church to state controls.
What led to the intensification of the Kulturkampf measures?
The assassination attempt led to an intensification of the Kulturkampf measures. 5 February: The encyclical Quod Nunquam declared that the May Laws were invalid, “insofar as they totally oppose the divine order of the Church.”
What were the laws of the Kulturkampf?
From 1871 to 1876, the Prussian state parliament and the federal legislature ( Reichstag), both with liberal majorities, enacted 22 laws in the context of the Kulturkampf. They were mainly directed against clerics: bishops, priests and religious orders ( anti-clerical) and enforced the supremacy of the state over the church.
How did Liberals react to the Kulturkampf?
The general ideological enthusiasm among the liberals for the Kulturkampf was in contrast to Bismarck’s pragmatic attitude towards the measures and growing disquiet from the Conservatives.
What was the outcome of the Kulturkampf?
A decisive boost only came in February 1880, when the Vatican unexpectedly agreed to the civic registry of clerics. As the Kulturkampf slowly wound down the talks lead to a number of so-called mitigation and peace laws which were passed until 1887.
What was Bismarck’s policy of Kulturkampf?
Even Bismarck – who initially saw a variety of tactical political advantages in these measures, e. g. for his suppressive policies against the Polish population – took pains to distance himself from the rigors of their enforcement.” The Kulturkampf law considered the harshest and with no equivalent in Europe was the Expatriation Law.