What is an Injectisome?
Injectisomes are transmembrane complexes used by Gram-negative bacteria to translocate so-called effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells, where the effectors influence host behaviour in favour of the bacterium [12,13].
What are Type III secretion systems used for?
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are complex bacterial structures that provide gram-negative pathogens with a unique virulence mechanism enabling them to inject bacterial effector proteins directly into the host cell cytoplasm, bypassing the extracellular milieu.
How is T3SS regulated?
Regulation of T3SS transcription is intrinsically controlled by the activity of the injectisome through a well-described and self-contained (encoded) regulatory mechanism (Brutinel and Yahr, 2008).
What is SEC dependent pathway?
A combination of bacterial genetics, development of an in vitro membrane vesicle system and the concurrent elaboration of the signal hypothesis from studies on eukaryotes led to the identification and characterization of two pathways leading to protein export through the SecYEG cytoplasmic membrane translocon.
What is the Type 4 secretion system?
The bacterial type IV secretion system, also known as the type IV secretion system or the T4SS, is a secretion protein complex found in gram negative bacteria, gram positive bacteria, and archaea. It is able to transport proteins and DNA across the cell membrane.
Which bacteria has Type 3 secretions?
Note that these names include proteins that form the T3SS machinery as well as the secreted effector proteins:
- Yersinia. Yop: Yersinia outer protein.
- Salmonella. Spa: Surface presentation of antigen.
- Shigella. Ipg: Invasion plasmid gene.
- In several species:
- “Protochlamydia amoebophila”
What is SEC in microbiology?
The general secretion (Sec) involves secretion of unfolded proteins that first remain inside the cells. In Gram-negative bacteria, the secreted protein is sent to either the inner membrane or the periplasm.
What is protein export?
In prokaryotes, protein export is defined as the delivery of the protein to the inner membrane or the periplasmic space. This process is conserved in eukaryotes and is exemplified by the delivery of proteins to the membrane and lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum.
Where is the F plasmid found?
bacterium E. coli
The F plasmid is an example of a large plasmid, which contains genes that allow the plasmids DNA to be transferred between cells. It is found in the bacterium E. coli; E. coli containing this F factor are known as F+ and those without are known as F-.
What is a Type IV pili?
Type IV pili (T4P) are surface-exposed fibers that mediate many functions in bacteria, including locomotion, adherence to host cells, DNA uptake (competence), and protein secretion and that can act as nanowires carrying electric current.
What is fimbriae zoology?
Definition. noun, plural: fimbriae. (1) (microbiology) A short, filamentous projection on a bacterial cell, used not for motility but for adhering to other bacterial cell (especially for mating) or to animal cells.