What does N stage mean?
The main tumor is usually called the primary tumor. The N refers to the the number of nearby lymph nodes that have cancer. The M refers to whether the cancer has metastasized. This means that the cancer has spread from the primary tumor to other parts of the body.
What does the N stand for in the TNM staging system?
A system to describe the amount and spread of cancer in a patient’s body, using TNM. T describes the size of the tumor and any spread of cancer into nearby tissue; N describes spread of cancer to nearby lymph nodes; and M describes metastasis (spread of cancer to other parts of the body).
What is N2 in cancer staging?
N2 means there is cancer in lymph nodes: in the centre of the chest (mediastinum) on the same side as the affected lung or. just under where the windpipe branches off to each lung.
Why are cancers staged?
Staging is a way to describe a cancer. The cancer’s stage tells you where a cancer is located and its size, how far it has grown into nearby tissues, and if it has spread to nearby lymph nodes or other parts of the body.
What does T1a mean?
T1a is a tumor that is larger than 1 mm but 5 mm or smaller. T1b is a tumor that is larger than 5 mm but 10 mm or smaller. T1c is a tumor that is larger than 10 mm but 20 mm or smaller.
What does T4 mean in lung cancer?
Stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer can be divided into primary bronchogenic carcinoma invading adjacent structures (T4), or tumors with metastases to contralateral mediastinal, contralateral hilar, ipsilateral or contralateral scalene, or supraclavicular lymph node(s) (N3).
What is cancer staging?
Cancer Staging Staging is the process of finding out how much cancer is in a person’s body and where it’s located. It’s how the doctor determines the stageof a person’s cancer.
What is an example of a staging system other than TNM?
For example: Staging systems other than the TNM system are often used for Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, as well as for some other cancers. The International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) has a staging system for cancers of the female reproductive organs.
What is the N staging system in nasopharyngeal carcinoma?
The N staging system in nasopharyngeal carcinoma with radiation therapy oncology group guidelines for lymph node levels based on magnetic resonance imaging Clin Cancer Res.
What information is included in a staging system?
Most staging systems include information about: Where the tumor is located in the body Whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes Whether the cancer has spread to a different part of the body Tumor grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look and how likely the tumor is to grow and spread