What are the side effects of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors?
NUCLEOSIDE/NUCLEOTIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS Asthenia, headache, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, renal toxicity, proteinuria, renal failure, decreased bone mineral density, risk of hepatitis B flare when stopped (also effective for treatment of hepatitis B)
What drugs cause lipodystrophy?
Older kinds of drugs to treat HIV like stavudine (d4T, Zerit), zidovudine (AZT, Retrovir), and some of the older protease inhibitors, like indinavir (Crixivan) have been linked to lipodystrophy.
What happens if reverse transcriptase is inhibited?
RTIs block reverse transcriptase’s enzymatic function and prevent completion of synthesis of the double-stranded viral DNA, thus preventing HIV from multiplying.
Which drugs are nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors?
These formulations include:
- zidovudine (Retrovir)
- lamivudine (Epivir)
- abacavir sulfate (Ziagen)
- didanosine (Videx)
- delayed-release didanosine (Videx EC)
- stavudine (Zerit)
- emtricitabine (Emtriva)
- tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread)
What are the serious side effects of Nnrti and NRTI?
NRTIs and Side Effects
- Stomach problems.
- Trouble sleeping.
What are the long term side effects of Arvs?
Long-Term Side Effects
- Fat redistribution. Your body may change the way it makes, uses, and stores fat.
- Higher cholesterol or triglyceride levels. These can raise your risk for problems like heart disease.
- High blood sugar.
- Liver damage (hepatotoxicity).
How does insulin cause lipodystrophy?
Lipohypertrophy is thought to be the direct anabolic effect of insulin on local skin leading to fat and protein synthesis9 and hence this is observed even with recombinant insulin preparations and continuous insulin infusion pumps. This complication occurs because of repeated injections at the same site.
What is insulin lipodystrophy?
Background. Lipodystrophy is one of the clinical complications of insulin injection that affects insulin absorption and leads to poor glycemic control. Objective. To assess insulin-induced lipodystrophy and glycemic control.
How does reverse transcriptase inhibitors work?
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) block reverse transcriptase (an HIV enzyme). HIV uses reverse transcriptase to convert its RNA into DNA (reverse transcription). Blocking reverse transcriptase and reverse transcription prevents HIV from replicating.
How does reverse transcriptase inhibitors slow the replication of DNA?
NRTIs lack a 3′-hydroxyl group at the 2′-deoxyribosyl moiety and will have either a nucleoside or nucleotide as a base. Due to the missing 3’hydroxyl group, the NRTI prevents the formation of a 3′-5′-phosphodiester bond in growing DNA chains and can prevent replication of the virus.
What are the serious side effects of Nnrti and Nrti?
What are side effects of protease inhibitors?
Confirmed potential side effects of protease inhibitors are:
- Insulin resistance.
- Nausea and diarrhea.
- Development of gallstones or kidney stones.
- Changes in how things taste.
- Elevated numbers in liver function tests.
- Rash or dry skin.
- Elevated cholesterol.