What are MMP-2 and MMP-9?
MMP-2 and MMP-9 are highly expressed in breast cancer tissues and are closely related to lymph node metastasis and tumor staging. MMP-2 and MMP-9 can be used as reference indices for guiding breast cancer prognosis and treatment.
What does MMP-2 do?
The MMP2 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called matrix metallopeptidase 2. This enzyme is produced in cells throughout the body and becomes part of the extracellular matrix, which is an intricate lattice of proteins and other molecules that forms in the spaces between cells.
What does MMP-9 do?
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, one of the most widely investigated MMPs, regulates pathological remodeling processes that involve inflammation and fibrosis in cardiovascular disease. MMP-9 directly degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and activates cytokines and chemokines to regulate tissue remodeling.
What is a MMP-9 blood test?
MMP-9 is a marker of inflammation, tissue remodeling, wound healing, and mobilization of tissue-bound growth factors and cytokines.
What does high mmp9 mean?
Elevated expression of MMP-9, along with MMP-2 is usually seen in invasive and highly tumorigenic cancers such as colorectal tumors, gastric carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma, breast cancer, oral cancer, melanoma, malignant gliomas, chondrosarcoma, gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma.
Where are matrix metalloproteinases found?
The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a subfamily within the M10 family of endopeptidases of the metzincin clan (M10A; Rawlings et al., 2012) They are found in lower eukaryotes and in plants but diversified substantially during the evolution of the vertebrates (Fanjul-Fernandez et al., 2010).
What is MMP enzyme?
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes that degrade various proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). MMPs may also regulate the activity of membrane receptors and postreceptor signaling mechanisms and thereby affect cell function.
What does high MMP-9 mean?
What are MMPs in wound healing?
Significance: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are present in both acute and chronic wounds. They play a pivotal role, with their inhibitors, in regulating extracellular matrix degradation and deposition that is essential for wound reepithelialization.
Is MMP-9 a serine protease?
Serine proteases are proteolytic enzymes that contain a highly reactive serine residue. Plasmin intensifies the degradation of the extra-cellular matrix proteins directly and indirectly by activating the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-1 and MMP-2 [4, 5].
What are normal levels of MMP-9?
Optimal Result: 0 – 984 ng/mL. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, one of the most widely investigated MMPs, regulates pathological remodeling processes that involve inflammation and fibrosis in cardiovascular disease.
What is normal MMP-9?
After releasing the MMP-9 test, and for years after, the Quest/LabCorp/Esoterix reference range for MMP-9 was 85-332 ng/mL. This would suggest a mean of 208.5 with SD of 61.75 ng/mL. After LabCorp/Esoterix changed the MMP-9 reference range, without a change in testing methodology, to 0-983 ng/mL, Dr.