How does intestinal tuberculosis occur?

How does intestinal tuberculosis occur?

The most common forms of disease include involvement of the peritoneum, intestine, and/or lymph nodes. TB of the abdomen may occur via reactivation of latent TB infection or by ingestion of tuberculous mycobacteria (as with ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat).

How does tuberculosis affect the digestive system?

Chronic tuberculous ileocolitis may lead to a cicatrisation and fibrosis of the bowel and patients may present with ileocolic strictures, mesenteric retraction and bowel obstruction. An echogenic peritoneum has also been reported in tuberculous infections of the gastrointestinal tract.

What are the basic pathological changes of tuberculosis?

Arthur Dannenberg described the pathology of tuberculosis in detail [2, 3]. There are five stages: onset, symbiosis, early stages of caseous necrosis, interplay of cell-mediated immunity and tissue damaging delayed-type hypersensitivity, and liquefaction and cavity formation.

Why do TB patients have transverse ulcers?

Macroscopically, TB classically causes ulceration, short strictures, marked thickening of the bowel wall due to inflammation, fibrosis and adhesions, or a combination of these. The ulcers are transverse, often circumferential, with ill-defined, sloping or overhanging edges.

Does TB cause loose motion?

Abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, weight loss and diarrhea are the most common symptoms of intestinal tuberculosis (21). Most patients also have pulmonary disease (22).

What is the pathophysiology of bronchiectasis?

Bronchiectasis is characterized by airway inflammation. The inflammation appears to arise as a combination of immune deficiency and persistent infection. As proposed by Cole this inflammatory process is progressive and results in a cycle of worsening pulmonary damage.

What is the etiology of pathophysiology?

Definition. The terms “etiology” and “pathogenesis” are closely related to the questions of why and how a certain disease or disorder develops. Models of etiology and pathogenesis therefore try to account for the processes that initiate (etiology) and maintain (pathogenesis) a certain disorder or disease.

What is the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease?

Sickle cell disease is caused by a mutation in the beta-globin chain of the haemoglobin molecule. Sickle haemoglobin, the result of this mutation, has the singular property of polymerizing when deoxygenated. Exactly how normal tissue perfusion is interrupted by abnormal sickle cells is complex and poorly understood.

What is abdominal TB?

Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is defined as infection of the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, abdominal solid organs, and/or abdominal lymphatics with Mycobacterium tuberculosis [1]. Abdominal TB constitutes approximately 12% of extrapulmonary TB cases and 1 to 3% of total TB cases [1, 2].

What is the pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis?

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ABDOMINAL TB. There are several ways by which tuberculosis can involve abdomen (Table ​(Table11)[10,11]. Firstly, the tubercle bacilli may enter the intestinal tract through the ingestion of infected milk or sputum.

How does tuberculosis (TB) spread in the gastrointestinal tract?

Tuberculosis bacteria reach the gastrointestinal tract via haematogenous spread, ingestion of infected sputum, or direct spread from infected contiguous lymph nodes and fallopian tubes.

Is abdominal tuberculosis diagnostic challenge?

Abstract Abdominal tuberculosis is an increasingly common disease that poses diagnostic challenge, as the nonspecific features of the disease which may lead to diagnostic delays and development of complications. This condition is regarded as a great mimicker of other abdominal pathology.

What organs are affected by abdominal tuberculosis?

Visceral tuberculosis Isolated involvement of abdominal solid organs is relatively uncommon and occurs in 15%-20% of all patients with abdominal TB[19]. The genitourinary system is the most commonly involved followed by liver, spleen and pancreas. The mode of spread is through hematogenous route.

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